The final word VIPER structure tutorial

Discover ways to write scalable iOS code utilizing the VIPER structure with some MVVM and MVC methods and coordinators in thoughts.


Swift design patterns and iOS architectures

A software program design sample is mainly a generic template of find out how to remedy a specific – however normally native – scenario. Achitectural patterns have larger affect on the entire codebase, they’re excessive stage generic templates. Please bear in mind one factor:

there isn’t any such factor as a foul structure

The weapon of choise solely depends upon the scenario, however you realize all the pieces is relative. Let’s stroll by means of all of the iOS design patterns and architectures actual fast and begin studying VIPER. 🐍

Swift design patterns

Let’s begin with the fundamentals, proper? If we do not get into UIKit, we are able to discover that there are numerous design patterns invented, perhaps you realize a few of them already. However hey, since we do not have that a lot time and I might like to speak about VIPER, let’s take a look at the essential precept of constructing UIKit apps utilizing the MVC sample.


The Mannequin-View-Controller (Large-View-Controller) sample is a fundamental idea. You could have normally an enormous UIViewController subclass that controls all of the views and collects each mannequin that wanted to be displayed for the tip person. For instance you name an API endpoint utilizing URLSession or Alamofire from the controller, do the response knowledge validation and formatting then you definitely implement your desk or assortment view delegates on the view controller, so mainly all the appliance logic goes inside that single overstuffed depressing view controller class. Does this ring a bell for you? πŸ™„


After realizing the issue, the very first thing that you are able to do is outsourcing the information reworking or binding half to a sepearate class. That is how the sensible individuals at Miscrosoft invented the Mannequin-View-ViewModel structure sample. Now you are one step nearer, your knowledge fashions and the views can have their “get collectively” on an entire new stage inside shiny new information far-far away from controller land. Nonetheless this sample won’t clear up all of the leftovers contained in the view controller. Do not forget that you continue to need to feed the view controller with knowledge, deal with all of the totally different states.


What if we transfer out all the information loading and presentation stuff from the view controller and put it into a brand new class magically referred to as the Presenter? Sounds good, the view controller can personal the brand new presenter occasion and we are able to dwell fortunately ever after. C’mon individuals we must always actually rename this to the Most Precious Sample ever! πŸ˜‰

The Coordinator sample

Say good day to The coordinator by Soroush Khanlou. Or ought to I merely name this because the Inverse Mannequin View Presenter sample? Look, right here is the deal, coordinators are on an entire new stage within this evolution progress, however in addition they have an excessive amount of to do. It is in opposition to the Single Duty precept, as a result of now you must handle the presentation context, the information storage, the routing and all of the differnet states inside coordinators or sub-coordinators… however, lastly your view controller is free from all of the leftover baggage and it will possibly focus immediately on it is job, which is? πŸ™ƒ

To be fucking dumb.

Presenting views utilizing UIKit associated stuff, and forwarding occasions.

I do not hate the design patters from above, I am simply merely attempting to level out (in a humorous / sarcastic approach) why VIPER was born on the primary place. πŸ˜…

Are you continue to with me? 😬

The VIPER structure

To start with DO NOT consider that VIPER is unhealthy, simply because somebody misused it. I believe it is a freaking wonderful structure! You simply need to study it correctly, which is tough, due to the dearth of fine tutorials. Everyone seems to be evaluating architectures, however that is not what individuals ought to do. So far as I can see, an MVP is sweet for a small app with just a few screens, you need to by no means use VIPER for these apps. The true drawback begins when you app grows and an increasing number of parts get into the sport.

In case you are planning to jot down a small app, simply begin with MVC. Afterward you’ll be able to repair the huge view controller drawback with MVVM, however if you wish to take it one stage additional you’ll be able to at all times use MVP or the coordinator sample to maintain maintainability. Which is totally effective, till you notice at some point that your code is filled with utility courses, managers, handlers and all of the nonsense objects. Sounds acquainted? πŸ˜…

As I discussed this earlier than there isn’t any such factor as a foul structure. There are solely unhealthy selections, which lead us to hardly maintainable codebases. So let me information you thru essentially the most helpful design sample that you will ever need to know with a view to write truely scalable iOS purposes: VIPER with module builders = VIPER(B)

Understanding VIPER

The VIPER structure is predicated on the only duty precept (S.O.L.I.D.)) which leads us to the speculation of a clear structure. The core parts or as an example layers of a VIPERB module are the next ones:


It is the interface layer, which implies UIKit information, largely UIViewController subclasses and all the opposite stuff. Views do not do something that is associated to enterprise logic, the’re only a presentation and occasion forwarding layer which is utilized by the presenter. As a result of the view is only a pure view controller, you should use MVVM rules or knowledge managers to make your mission much more concise.


The interactor is liable for retrieving knowledge from the mannequin layer, and its implementation is totally impartial of the person interface. It is necessary to keep in mind that knowledge managers (community, database, sensor) are usually not a part of VIPER, so they’re handled as separate parts (providers), coming outdoors from the VIPER module land and they are often injected as dependencies for interactors.

The Interactor can put together or rework knowledge, that is coming from the service layer. For instance it will possibly do some sorting or filtering earlier than asking the correct community service implementation to request or save the information. However keep in mind that the Interactor doesn’t know the view, so it has no concept how the information must be ready for the view, that is the function of the Presenter. πŸ™„


UIKit impartial class that prepares the information within the format required by the view and take selections primarily based on UI occasions from the view, that is why generally it is referred as an occasion handler. It is the core class of a VIPER module, as a result of it additionally communicates with the Interactor and calls the router for wire-framing (aka. to current a brand new module or dismiss the present one).

It is the one class that communicates with virtually all the opposite parts. That is the ONLY job of the presenter, so it shouldn’t know something about UIKit or low stage knowledge fashions. Principally it is the guts of the appliance, or some would say it is the place the place all of the enterprise logic will get carried out. πŸ’œ


Plain mannequin courses used largely by the interactor. Often I am defining them outdoors the VIPER module construction (within the service layer), as a result of these entities are shared throughout the system. We might separate them by module, however normally I do not like that method as a result of eg. all of the CoreData fashions may be generated into one place. Identical factor applies if you’re utilizing Swagger or an analogous software.


The navigation logic of the appliance utilizing UIKit courses. For instance if you’re utilizing the identical iPhone views in a iPad utility, the one factor that may change is how the router builds up the construction. This lets you hold all the pieces else, however the Router untouched. It additionally listens for navigation move modifications from the presenter, so it will show the correct display screen if wanted. Additionally if you might want to open an exterior URL name UIApplication.shared.openURL(url) contained in the Router as a result of that is additionally a routing motion, the identical logic applies for social media sharing utilizing UIActivityViewController.

Additionally if you must go knowledge between VIPER modules it looks like a proper place to do that within the router. I normally talk between two module utilizing a delegate sample, so I picked up this behavior of calling delegate features within the router. πŸ“²


Some individuals are utilizing the router to construct the entire module, however I do not like that method. That is why I am at all times utilizing a separate module builder class. It is solely duty is to construct the entire module by utilizing dependency injection for all of the extenal providers. It might probably additionally construct mock or different variations of the identical module. That is fairly useful if it involves unit testing. Completely is sensible. πŸ‘

NOT all the pieces is a VIPER module

For instance if you wish to create a generic subclass from a UIViewWhatever please do not attempt to stuff that into the parts above. It is best to create a spot outdoors your VIPER modules folder and put it there. There shall be some use circumstances with particular courses which are higher to not be VIPERized! πŸ˜‰

Providers and utility particular code

I normally have 3 separate layers in my purposes. Modules, providers, and app. All of the VIPER modules are sitting contained in the Modules folder. Every little thing that is community or knowledge associated goes to the Providers folder (api service, core knowledge service, location service, and so on.) and afterward will get used within the module builder relying the present surroundings (for instance mock implementation for testing).Β All of the remaining stuff like view subclassess, and different UI associated objects, app particular styling or design smart issues are positioned contained in the App listing.

How you can write VIPER code?

I can not emphase sufficient how necessary is to study this structure earlier than you begin utilizing it. I consider that issues can go actual unhealthy if somebody misunderstands VIPER and begin placing view logic in a presenter for instance. In case you had a earlier unhealthy expertise with VIPER, take into consideration this quote: do not blame the software, blame the carpenter (simply as Ilya Puchka properly mentioned on a twitter dialog). πŸ”¨

Each single element will simply get into the fitting place when you comply with the foundations of VIPER.

Module era

By no means begin to create a VIPER module by hand, you need to at all times use a code generator, as a result of (sadly) you may want a lot of boilerplate code for every module. That appears fairly unlucky at first sight, however that is what offers the true energy of this structure. All members of your developer group will know the place to search for if a selected challenge happens. If it is a view challenge, you must repair the view, if it involves a navigation drawback then it is a router drawback.

There are various present code generator options (one of many famoust is generamba), however I made my very own little Swift software for producing VIPER modules. It is fairly rattling light-weight, nevertheless it’s actually heplful (it makes use of templates with a view to generate a brand new module) i am calling it: VIPERA. (Hungarian title of the viper snake… haha πŸ˜‚)

You simply need to clone / obtain the repository & run swift run set up --with-templates with a view to make it work. To any extent further you’ll be able to merely run vipera MyModule to generate a brand new module primarily based on the default template. As a second argument you’ll be able to go your personal template listing title (you’ll be able to create your personal template beneath the ~/.vipera folder, or you’ll be able to change the default one too).

The anatomy of the bottom template is fairly easy, I am not creating subfolders for every layer, however I am separating the interfaces and the default implementation somewhere else. That provides me somewhat little bit of sanity, as a result of a lot of the VIPER templates appeared to be very deterrent simply due to the mission construction.

Naming conventions

Protocols are outlined for nearly each VIPER element. Each protocol shall be prefixed with the module title, and it will not have some other suffix besides from the layer title (like MyModuleRouter, MyModulePresenter).

Default implementation is used for the essential situation, each protocol implementation follows the ModuleName+Default+Layer naming conference. So for instance MyModuleDefaultRouter or MyModuleDefaultPresenter.

Inter-module communication utilizing delegates

The move is one thing like this:

Router / Presenter

The presenter can ship occasions for the router utilizing the router protocol definition.

Presenter / Interactor

The interactor can notify the presenter by means of the presenter’s interface, and the presenter can name the interactor utilizing the outlined strategies contained in the interactor protocol.

Presenter / View

The view normally has setter strategies to replace it is contents outlined on the view protocol. It might probably additionally notify the presenter of incoming or load occasions by means of the presenter protocol.

Knowledge switch between modules

Think about an inventory, you choose an merchandise and go to a brand new controller scene. You must go at the very least a singular indentifier between VIPER modules to make this attainable.

It is normally accomplished considerably like this:

  • The view calls the didSelect methodology on the presenter with the id
  • The presenter forwards the id to the router utilizing the routeFor(id) methodology
  • The router calls the builder to construct a brand new module utilizing the id
  • The builder builds the brand new module utilizing the id
  • The router presents the brand new module utilizing it is view (controller)
  • The brand new module passes the id for everybody who wants it (router, presenter)
  • The brand new module’s presenter will get the id
  • The brand new module’s interactor hundreds the information and provides it for the presenter
  • The brand new module’s presenter offers the information for the view and presents it
  • Element display screen seems with correct knowledge.

In case you are presenting a controller modally it’s also possible to go the unique router as a delegate, so you’ll shut it correctly if it is wanted. 😎

Reminiscence administration

Lengthy story quick:

  • The builder holds noone.
  • The router retains a weak reference of the view and the presenter.
  • The presenter holds the router and the interactor strongly
  • The interactor retains a weak refernece of the presenter
  • The view retains a robust refernece of the presenter
  • UIKit holds the views.

It is best to examine this within the supplied instance, no leaks – I hope so –Β all the pieces will get launched good and easily after you return or dismiss a module. 🀞

Last conclusion: ought to I study VIPER?

Though VIPER is extremely criticized due to it is complexity, all I can say it is definitely worth the effort to study its priciples correctly. You will see that there are far more advantages of utilizing VIPER as a substitute of ignoring it.


  • Simplicity – for giant groups on complicated tasks
  • Scalability – simultaneous work seamlessly
  • Reusability – decoupled app parts primarily based on roles
  • Consistency – module skeletons, separation of issues
  • Readability – Single tasks (SOLID)
  • Testability – separated small courses, TDD, higher code protection
  • Interfaces – module independence, effectively outlined scopes
  • Bug fixing – simpler to trace points, find bugs and issues
  • Supply management – smaller information, much less conflicts, cleaner code
  • Straightforward – codebase seems comparable, sooner to learn others work


  • Verbosity – many information per module
  • Complexity – many protocols and delegates
  • On-boarding – lack of correct VIPER data
  • Engagement – VIPER is unhealthy, as a result of it is complicated, meh!

I made a follow-up article about VIPER finest practices that I’ve study alongside the journey, you will discover the pattern repository on github. I hope that these tutorials will enable you to study this structure higher, in case you have any questions, be happy to contact me on twitter. πŸ‘¨β€πŸ’»

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